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Depression In Context of Psychology

Abstract
In this paper people will be learning everything there is to know about Depression. Questions that will be answered in this paper include; What is depression? What types of depression are there? What causes depression? Who is at risk for depression? What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Depression? How Is Depression Diagnosed? How Is Depression Treated? And finally, How we can prevent depression between young people in this world. What I hope to accomplish in this paper is helping parents and teachers understand what depression really is and possibly help them notice it in their own students or kids before its too late.
Key Words/ Phrases: Depression, Diagnoses, Different types of depression, How it can be prevented, Whos at risk.
Depression is a seriously misunderstood situation in the world. When people look at depression they often see it as something that is exaggerated as if they see it as a ‘boy who cried wolf’ scenario. Meaning that people often always think that people are being depressed for attention. But, unfortunately, this isn’t always the case which means that people who need Psychological help are sometimes unable to get it because adults sometimes think that they aren’t truly depressed and being dramatic.
According to mayoclinic.org “Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called a major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn't worth living.” When thinking about depression you also have to know and understand the signs and symptoms.
Symptoms often vary between age groups, in children and teens, symptoms include mainly sadness, tiredness, and irritability and in teens, there is often anger and feelings of worthlessness which will also lead to self-harm in teens. Compared to adults where the symptoms are often memory loss, sleep loss, and sometimes a loss of interest in activities they enjoy (mayoclinic.org).
Having these symptoms may make it difficult to pursue the day. If a person feels this way it is suggested to contact a doctor and speak with them. When a person is depressed it is often harder to get out of bed and move around. They don’t visit their friends and family and if a family member or friend notices it would help to sit down and talk about what is bothering you before you automatically speak with a doctor that you don’t know. On top of the symptoms of depression, there are also different types of depression.
There are a wide range of kinds of depression, some of which are brought about by occasions throughout your life, and others by concoction changes in the mind. Sadness can be thought of as an umbrella term for an assortment of disarranges, some of which are brought about by certain life occasions or circumstances, and others by compound changes in the cerebrum. In addition, while a portion of the side effects related to the different burdensome issue cover, there are likewise some key contrasts (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). There are many different types of depression, but the three I will be discussing are Major Depression (Clinical Depression), Manic Depression (Bipolar Disorder), and Postpartum Depression (Peripartum Depression).
Major depression also knows as unipolar or clinical depression is characterized by a constant feeling of sadness or lack of interest in outside stimuli (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). There are many symptoms to clinical depression as said by Truschel, J. & Cagliostro symptoms include, “loss of interest or pleasure in your activities, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, negative thinking with the inability to see positive solutions, feeling restless or agitated, inability to focus, lashing out at loved ones, irritability, withdrawing from loved ones, increase in sleeping, exhaustion, and lethargy, morbid or suicidal thoughts, Weight loss or gain.” Along with these symptoms people often have depressive episodes which are defined as a period where an individual experienced symptoms such as helplessness, loss of pleasure, fatigue, and suicidal thoughts which lasts about two weeks or more (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). This depressive disorder also isn’t “curable” but can slowly fade with proper treatment which will slowly make the symptoms disappear over time, and the best treatment to do so is a combination of medicine and therapy. (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro).
Another type of depression is Manic depression disorder. Also known as Bipolar disorder it is a mental health condition in which extreme fluctuations in mood and changes in energy, thinking, behavior, and sleep are common (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). When diagnosed with Bipolar depression you aren’t just sad like you are with clinical depression, your state of mind is different and will lead to more suicidal thoughts that change to feelings of euphoria and constant energy. Unfortunately, these mood swings occur more and more often or they can also just show up once or twice a year (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). As said by Truschel, J. & Cagliostro “Mood stabilizers, such as lithium, can be used to control the mood swings that come with bipolar disorder, but individuals have also been prescribed a variety of different medications including antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics.” But, there also is no cure for Bipolar disorder but it can be managed by a treatment plan involving psychotherapy and medications (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro).
Finally, we have Postpartum Depression (Peripartum Depression). Also known as the “baby blues” the baby blues “are sad feelings and crying bouts that follow childbirth” (Truschel, J., & Cagliostro). This type of sadness occurs after a woman gives birth, it is caused by dramatic and sudden hormonal changes that occur after childbirth. According to Truschel, J. & Cagliostro, “Around one in seven women will experience something more extreme than the typical baby blues. However, women that give birth and struggle with sadness, anxiety or worry for several weeks or more may have postpartum depression (PPD).” When experiencing postpartum depression the women will often feel down for most of the day for a few weeks or more, may feel withdrawn from people they love, lose interest in activities that they love including sex, and may have changes in eating and sleeping habits among many more other symptoms.
The different symptoms also come from different causes of depression. According to Harvard Health Publishing, “ It's often said that depression results from a chemical imbalance, but that figure of speech doesn't capture how complex the disease is. Research suggests that depression doesn't spring from simply having too much or too little of certain brain chemicals. Rather, there are many possible causes of depression, including faulty mood regulation by the brain, genetic vulnerability, stressful life events, medications, and medical problems. It's believed that several of these forces interact to bring on depression.”
Even though chemicals are involved with causing depression, it isn’t that one chemical is too high and another is too low. It is caused because many chemicals are involved, both inside and outside the nerve cells. This means that there are millions possibly billions of chemical reactions that make up the system that changes your mood, perceptions, and experiences in your life meaning its not just one chemical imbalance which also means that two people may experience the same symptoms but depending on their chemical balance, their treatments may work differently (Harvard Health Publishing).
Adding to the causes, depression had an impact on a person’s brain. As said by Harvard Health Publishing, “Popular lore has it that emotions reside in the heart. Science, though, tracks the seat of your emotions to the brain. Certain areas of the brain help regulate mood. Researchers believe that — more important than levels of specific brain chemicals — nerve cell connections, nerve cell growth, and the functioning of nerve circuits have a major impact on depression. Still, their understanding of the neurological underpinnings of mood is incomplete.” this helps people understand how depression is connected to the mind. Researchers may know a lot about the mind when it comes to depression but their research is still incomplete and they still have much more to learn about depression in the mind and factors that cause it.
Depression affects many different people but the question is who is more at risk? When a person understands who depression affects most can also help them determine if a loved one may be experiencing or at risk for developing depression. “While depression can affect anyone, there are certain segments of the population at higher risk for developing depression. For example, depression is more common among women than men. The median age of onset for depression is 32 years, meaning that half of the people who will ever have a depressive episode will have had their first episode by this age” (Understanding Depression). Furthermore, depression also happens with anxiety or substance abuse disorders, which means that people with these disorders are also at a higher risk for depression compared to people without these disorders. Fortunately, for people who have depression, there is always help available (Understanding Depression).
To treat depression there are multiple ways to do so. Support, psychotherapy, and drug treatment are the main ways to treat depression. When looking at support, “it can range from discussing practical solutions and possible causes to educating family members” (Goldman, L.). when looking at Psychotherapy, “also known as talking therapy, some options include on-to-on counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)” (Goldman, L.). and then when looking at drug treatment, a doctor can prescribe medications called antidepressants. Antidepressants are meant to help people with moderate to severe depression. According to Goldman, L. “Several classes of antidepressants are available: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). tricyclic antidepressants, atypical antidepressants, selective serotonin, and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)” are all included for medication and treatments but they also have different side effects. It is also shown that “each class acts on a different neurotransmitter or combination id neurotransmitters” (Goldman, L.).
When talking about Diagnosis, it is strongly recommended that if a person believes they are having symptoms of depression that they should seek professional help from a doctor or a mental health specialist (Goldman, L.). when a doctor or specialist is diagnosing a person for depression they will ask questions about symptoms. For example, how long have these feelings or symptoms been present? Doctors will also often perform examinations and may ask the person to take a few tests or surveys to help them diagnose whether or not they have depression and which type they may have (Goldman, L.).
Finally, how can we help prevent depression between young people? According to Chunn, L. there are five great ways to help prevent depression. These ways include Easing off on social media, get some sleep, stop lying around, see friends in person, and finally seek professional help. As fun as using social media is, it’s also good to take time away with it as well. As Chunn, L says “it can easily lead to a major dose of envy, paranoia, and low self-esteem. A study of 960 college students published in the International Journal of Eating Disorders has shown how Facebook can affect women’s body image.” This shows that if a person doesn’t take time away from social media, they may gain weight and they would possibly become depressed about their body image due to being self-conscious.
Sleeping is another great way to prevent depression. As stated by Chunn, L. “The older we are, the less sleep we need. Teenagers and young adults need around nine hours and neuroscientists say that teens run on a different circadian rhythm to older people, getting tired later but not being ready to wake up until later too. Depression can cause insomnia – but not getting enough sleep can also exacerbate low moods. Sleep is when you process emotions and memories.” Sleep is super important in a growing teenager’s body and if you don’t get enough you mind goes placed it shouldn’t which causes depression. And if a person has insomnia to start with, they may also gain depression because they aren’t able to sleep well enough. So getting enough sleep keeps their mind sharp and ready for the challenges of the day.
The third is to stop lying around. Get up and exercise, it is great for your health as well. When a person is young and depressed they can find themselves not wanting to get out of bed in the morning, which then “further exacerbates depression and visa versa” (Chunn, L.). as Chunn, L. stated “ As one study recently pointed out, increasing your exercise levels from nothing to at least three times a week can decrease the likelihood of becoming depressed by almost 20%.” this proves that when a teen gets up and start exercising they will find themselves having more energy and possibly a happier attitude.
Then we have the fourth one which is to see your friends in person more often. As Chunn, L. quoted from a Psychologist, “An adolescent’s internet identity is carefully crafted … to define self, publicize personal image, enhance social standing and attract attention, particularly of peers.” What he is explaining here is that when a person is a teen, they tend to care a lot more about their image than their health. Meeting with friends is healthy because social media causes them to act differently they have more freedom at home and with friends. Being with friends lets them open up and share how they feel preventing depression.
Finally, the last way to prevent depression is by seeking professional help. As said before, when a person feels like they are depressed they should get ahold of a doctor as soon as they can. As Chunn, L. states “A conversation with your GP is a good start; the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) program is designed to provide talking therapy for those in need. However, many people find that the wait is long and the choice (largely cognitive behavioral therapy) is limited. Therapists and counselors are increasingly seeing younger people and some offer concessions based on lower incomes and circumstances.” Having these options can help teens prevent depression before it happens. When a teen starts feeling sad or down all the time if they contact other people they can stop themselves from getting worse. Thankfully there is always help available and families can get help even if they feel someone they know is becoming or is depressed.
Depression is a seriously misunderstood disease. There are over ten different types of depression. Three main ones are Clinical depression, Bipolar depression, and Postpartum depression. Each one different than the last and each type has many different and similar symptoms. People at higher risk for depression are usually around 35 years old or they often have some sort of physical or mental disorder. Thankfully, for people that have depression, there is always help for them, they will always have somebody to contact to help make them feel better, whether its friends and family or its by contacting a doctor. There are also ways to prevent depression the best one being seeing friends and being more social. When a teen is seeing friends and family they can talk about their problems and will be better off than staying at home in bed all day. Depression isn’t a fun thing to experience. So let us try and help others instead of shutting them down as some people do, let give them a chance to talk and be happy and make the world a better place one person at a time. Homeworkfor.me is a place where you can have a look at various rhetorical analysis topics. They are absolutely free and can be used to do your own assignments.